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Friday, May 25, 2012

Importance of immutability for concurrency

Let's take a look at how much performance we may gain when applying immutability to our code. I will let the code snippets speak for themselves. Below a generic trait with 3 methods of which two are important: the find and save method.
package robbypelssers.concurrency

trait Store[K,V] {
    def find(k: K): Option[V]
    def save(v: V): Unit
    def getName(): String

Now we create a mutable and immutable store (both insert key-value pairs (index mapped to fibonacci number) in respectively a mutable and immutable hashmap.
package robbypelssers.concurrency

import collection.mutable.HashMap

class MutableFibonacciStore extends Store[Int, Int] with Fibonacci {
  val store = new HashMap[Int, Int]

  def find(n: Int): Option[Int] = synchronized(store.get(n))

  def save(n: Int): Unit = synchronized(store.put(n, fibonacci(n)))
  def getName() = "MutableFibonacciStore"


package robbypelssers.concurrency

import collection.immutable.HashMap

class ImmutableFibonacciStore extends Store[Int, Int] with Fibonacci {

  var store = new HashMap[Int,Int]
  def find(n: Int): Option[Int] = store.get(n)

  def save(n: Int): Unit = synchronized(store = store + ((n, fibonacci(n))))
  def getName() = "ImmutableFibonacciStore"


package robbypelssers.concurrency

trait Fibonacci {

    def fibonacci(n: Int): Int = n match {
        case 0 => 0
        case 1 => 1
        case _ => fibonacci(n-2) + fibonacci(n-1)

Below a very simple profiler which will give some idea of how long both stores will take to do a lot of calls to find and save.
package robbypelssers.concurrency

import java.util.Date

object Profiler {

   * profile method works like an Around Advice in AspectOriented programming
  def profile[T](body: => T) = {
      val start = new Date()
      val result = body
      val end = new Date()
      println("Execution took " + (end.getTime() - start.getTime()) / 1000 + " seconds") 

package robbypelssers.concurrency

import java.util.Date
import Profiler._
object StoreConcurrencyTest extends App {

  val immutableStore = new ImmutableFibonacciStore()
  val mutableStore = new MutableFibonacciStore()
  val numberOfOperations = 40
  def useStore(store: Store[Int,Int], n: Int) {
        println("using " + store.getName())
        for (x:Int <- 1 to n) {
        for (x:Int <- 1 to n) {
  profile(useStore(immutableStore, numberOfOperations))
  profile(useStore(mutableStore, numberOfOperations))

using ImmutableFibonacciStore
Execution took 1 seconds
using MutableFibonacciStore
Execution took 4 seconds

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